First published in The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages that only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual understanding.
For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today. Norse was also widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. In terms of geography the Northumbrian region lay north of the Humber River; the Mercian lay north of the Thames and South of the Humber River; West Saxon lay south and southwest of the Thames; and the smallest, Kentish region lay southeast of the Thames, a small corner of England.
A textbook that offers seven short chapters about the basic highlights of the history of English, not ordered chronologically but by topic. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs had many more inflectional endings and formsand word order was much freer than in Modern English.
Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English.
It is sometimes possible to give approximate dates for the borrowing of individual Latin words based on which patterns of sound change they have undergone. In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.
Norse borrowings are relatively rare in Old English literature, being mostly terms relating to government and administration. In the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the official language to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others.
Modern English has case forms in pronouns he, him, his and a few verb endings I have, he hasbut Old English had case endings in nouns as well, and verbs had more person and number endings.
Translated and revised by Eugene J. We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings Of these, Northumbria south of the Tyneand most of Merciawere overrun by the Vikings during the 9th century.
The portion of Mercia that was successfully defended, and all of Kentwere then integrated into Wessex under Alfred the Great. Even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from Modern English: A few short inscriptions from the early period of Old English were written using a runic script.
The use of progressive forms in -ing, appears to be spreading to new constructions, and forms such as had been being built are becoming more common.
Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century. Wyld is a more advanced work that focuses on phonological developments and pays particular attention to dialect variation. A textbook that includes chapters on the origin and main historical periods of English as well as chapters on US English and worldwide English.
Early Modern English was characterised by the Great Vowel Shift —inflectional simplification, and linguistic standardisation.
Fennell and van Gelderen are both useful introductory course books that can also be read independently. However the centre of norsified English seems to have been in the Midlands around Lindseyand after CE when Lindsey was reincorporated into the Anglo-Saxon polity, Norse features spread from there into English varieties that had not been in intense contact with Norse speakers.
This was also the period in which a grammarian named Robert Lowth condemned the double-negative, a construction often used by Shakespeare, but now deemed grammatically incorrect as though English were equivalent to algebra!.
English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Old English originated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the coast of the North Sea, whose languages are now known as the Anglo-Frisian subgroup within West Germanic. As such, the modern Frisian languages are the closest living relatives of Modern English.
This bestselling text by Charles Barber, with updating contributions from Joan C. Beal and Philip A.
Shaw, recounts the history of the English language from its remote ancestry to the present day. Sep 13, · Read "A Companion to Baugh and Cable's A History of the English Language" by Thomas Cable with Rakuten Kobo.
This comprehensive and accessible student workbook accompanies the fifth edition of. A History of the English Language [Albert C. Baugh, Thomas Cable] on mobile-concrete-batching-plant.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A History of the English Language explores the linguistic and cultural development of English from the Roman conquest of England to the present day to provide a comprehensive overview of the different aspects of its history.
Praise for the fifth edition: 'The fifth edition of A History of the English Language will continue to be the standard reference work on the history of English.' Peter Erdmann, Technische University, Berlin, Germany 'Baugh and Cable's classic is still an absolute must for everyone interested in the development of English in its socio-historical context.3/5(1).
This comprehensive and accessible student workbook accompanies the fifth edition of Albert C. Baugh and Thomas Cable's History of the English mobile-concrete-batching-plant.com chapter in the workbook corresponds directly to a chapter in the textbook and offers exercises, review questions, extensive Price: $Baugh and cable on the english language